CAQDAS 101

What is CAQDAS?

Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software Software program to be downloaded on the computer Alternative to traditional method of Qualitative Analysis (QA) Helps researchers manage their data

History of CAQDAS in SLA

Evolved from school of QA (early 20th century) to incorporate technology to the process in the 1980-1990s. Became commercially available in 1990s. Reviews and discussion of CAQDAS began largely in the 2000s. Still new.

Not only new software, but new types of data to analyse: pictures, audio records, videos all in digital form. Now we are also including websites, feeds, social networking sites - dynamic and evolving data.

CAQDAS terminology

codes - sections of text, picture, audio, video, etc. highlighted for analysis. Also, the label given to such a highlighted section. nodes - category in which to group codes

trees nodes - categorisation of nodes

How do CAQDAS help language teachers/researchers?

  • ideas that emerge about the relationship within the data can be tested immediately staying close to what was actually said by participants throughout analysis

  • record memos as you code

  • analyse memos to strengthen your methodology

  • different ways of visualising the data (word tree, graphs, matrixes, etc.)

  • generate theory or models

Integrating Theory and Methodology into CAQDAS

- adaptable to most theoretical frameworks and methodological process

Ex: grounded theory, ethnomethodology, sociocultural theory, action research, triangulation, inter-rater reliability, conversational analysis

What are the issues with CAQDAS in the literature?

  • Making the qualitative research process more transparent (Ryan, 2009; Wickam & Woods, 2005)

  • Rigour still depends on researcher, but computer software has a way of making it explicit with less effort.

  • Not enough description/detail about the QA process

Good examples of study that have used CAQDAS: ‘Transana’

Dooly, M. (2011). Divergent perceptions of telecollaborative language learning tasks: Task-as- Workplan vs. Task-as-Process. Language Learning and Technology, 15(2), 69-91. - Introduction

(research questions)

- Literature review Participants + context Materials - Analysis framework: data selection and management Intertwines theoretical framework and methodological approach in the analysis since they contribute the way the data was extracted and analysed. Also, the logistics and timeframe of the study dictate how the data collection and analysis will be completed. The researcher shows a visual representation of this timeframe to validate her analysis. The researcher also outlines her analytical cycle to show the rigour of her analytical process.

- Analysis

Presents the segments of the data that are representative to the themes that the researcher extracted. The analysis of the data allows the researcher to create a visualisation (model) of how the teacher planning occurs and evolves over the course of the class based on the interactions that occur in the classroom. - Discussion Teachers perceptions of students being off-task was not corroborated by data analysis. Rather students were engaged in task-as-process rather than task-as-workplan. Didn’t meet teacher’s expectations, but they reached their goal of producing a monolingual project. Taks-as-outcomes seems to coincide in this case. - Limitations - Final words

How can you design a study using CAQDAS?

Things to keep in mind:

- How will you collect your data so you can work with it? Is there built-in transcription device? - What type of data are you working with? (video files, audio files, a few text files, a lot of small text files, jpegs, etc.)

- What kind of documents can you import? - How many codes will you use?

- Can you reorganise the codes easily? - What are the shortcuts for coding? - Will the loading time be slower as the project gets bigger?

- Can you share/export this project easily?

- Does the software provide the analytical tools you will need?

What are the different types of CAQDAS?

Overview: http://www.surrey.ac.uk/sociology/research/researchcentres/caqdas/support/choosing/

Overview: http://www.slideshare.net/merlien/choosing-the-right-software-for-your-research-study- an-overview-of-leading-caqdas-packages-4265740 Nvivo - http://www.qsrinternational.com/default.aspx

ATLAS t.i. - http://www.atlasti.com/index.html Transana - http://www.transana.org ELAN - http://tla.mpi.nl/tools/tla-tools/elan/download/ MAXQDA - http://www.maxqda.com QDA Miner - http://provalisresearch.com/products/qualitative-data-analysis-software/

HyperResearch - http://www.researchware.com/products/hyperresearch.html

Some resources for using CAQDAS for free - Free webinars

- Meetings with Olesya (very specific questions only!) olesya.falenchuk@utoronto.ca - Nvivo is available for free on the computers in the EdCommons - Usage manuals PDFs available for free online

Books on CAQDAS

- Short introduction to CAQDAS in analytical process: Silverman, D. (2005). Doing qualitative research : a practical handbook. London : Sage. Flick, U. (2006). An introduction to qualitative research. London : Sage. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Toronto : Oxford University Press. Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative analysis : practice and innovation. London : Routledge.

- Very detailed use of the software in research project: Richards, L. (1999). Using NVivo in qualitative research. Thousand Oaks : Sage. Bazeley, P. & Jackson, K. (2013). Qualitative analysis coding with Nvivo. Thousand Oaks : Sage.

Lewins, A., & Silver, C. (2007). Using software in qualitative research. London : Sage. doi: 10.4135/9780857025012 Journal articles about CAQDAS - Good examples of how to use CAQDAS to report your study: Dooly, M. (2011). Divergent perceptions of tellecollaborative language learning tasks: Task-as- Workplan vs. Task-as-Process. Language Learning and Technology, 15(2), 69-91 Mavrou K., Douglas, G. & Lewis, A. (2007). The use of Transana as a video analysis tool in researching computer-based collaborative learning in inclusive classrooms in Cyprus. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 30(2), 163-178. doi:10.1080/17437270701383305 Lausberg, H. & Sloetjes, H. (2008) Gesture coding with the NGS - ELAN system. In A.J. Spink, M.R. Ballintijn, N.D. Bogers, F. Grieco, L.W.S. Loijens, L.P.J.J. Noldus, G. Smit, and P.H. Zimmerman (Eds.), Proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2008, 176-177. - Discussions on the issues concerning the use of CAQDAS in doing research: Rademaker, L. Grace, E. & Curda, S. (2012). Using Computer-assisted Qualitatie Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) to re-examine traditionally analysed data: expanding our understanding of the data and of ourselves as Scholars. The Qualitative Report, 17(43), 1-11.

Richards, L. (2002). Qualitative computing—a methods revolution? International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 5(3), 236–276.

Ryan, M. (2009). Making visible the coding process: Using qualitative data software in a poststructural study. Issues in Educational Research, 19(2), 132-161

Seror, J. (2005). Computers and qualitative data analysis: paper, pens, and highlighters vs. screen, mouse, and keyboard. TESOL Quarterly, 39(2), p.321-328. doi:10.2307/3588315

Wickam, M. & Woods, M. (2005). Reflecting on the strategic use of CAQDAS to manage and report on the qualitative research process. The Qualitative Report, 10(4), 687-707.

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